From Deborah Goldschmidt and Johannes Schmieder:
The nature of the relationship between employers and employees has been changing over the last decades, with firms increasingly relying on contractors, temp agencies and franchises rather than hiring employees directly. We investigate the impact of this transformation on the wage structure by following jobs that are moved outside of the boundary of lead employers to contracting firms. For this end we develop a new method for identifying outsourcing of food, cleaning, security and logistics services in administrative data using the universe of social security records in Germany. We document a dramatic growth of domestic outsourcing in Germany since the early 1990s. Event-study analyses show that wages in outsourced jobs fall by approximately 10-15% relative to similar jobs that are not outsourced. We find evidence that the wage losses associated with outsourcing stem from a loss of firm-specific rents, suggesting that labor cost savings are an important reason why firms choose to contract out these services. Finally, we tie the increase in outsourcing activity to broader changes in the German wage structure, in particular showing that outsourcing accounts for around 10 percent of the increase in German wage inequality since the 1980s.
Here is their website. From a quick glance, it seems to have election data since 1970 for most if not all elected offices ranging from local to federal offices. Awesome.
From Pat Kline and Chris Walters:
This paper empirically evaluates the cost-effectiveness of Head Start, the largest early- childhood education program in the United States. Using data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), we show that Head Start draws roughly a third of its participants from competing preschool programs that receive public funds. This both attenuates measured experimental impacts on test scores and reduces the program’s net budgetary costs. A calibration exercise indicates that accounting for the public savings associated with reduced enrollment in other subsidized preschools substantially increases estimates of Head Start’s rate of return, defined as the after-tax lifetime earnings generated by an extra dollar of public spending. Estimates of a semi-parametric selection model reveal substantial heterogeneity in Head Start’s test score im- pacts with respect to counterfactual care alternatives as well as observed and unobserved child characteristics. Head Start is about as effective at raising test scores as competing preschools and its impacts are greatest on children from families unlikely to participate in the program. Expanding Head Start to new populations is therefore likely to boost the program’s rate of return, provided that the proposed technology for increasing enrollment is not too costly.